Dogwood borers were first found in clonal rootstocks in northern Virginia, Pennsylvania, and the rest of the Northeast. 5 (1 = very little damage 5 = plants killed) Hosts. 2 pictures total. Common tree borers. The four wood boring insects mentioned below attack a wide range of trees. Larva is creamy white to pink with a sclerotized reddish head (B). Persistent infestations over several years can contribute to a slow decline of the tree and reduced yields. The Dogwood Borer. Adult is bluish-black with yellow bands and clear wings, resembling a wasp. Cultivated trees are usually more heavily infested than those in wood lots. Adult is bluish-black with yellow bands and clear wings, resembling a wasp. It attacks and kills healthy ash trees. It is also an important pest of many other ornamental, fruit, and nut trees. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. Rootstocks M.9, M.9/MM.106, M.26, MM.106, and MM.111 show some difference in susceptibility, but only MM.111 has a considerably lower infestation level. As always in the use of chemicals, follow the directions carefully. Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. It will not be as effective, but will help reduce the number of dogwood borer larvae, which will reduce the amount of damage to the tree until you are able to treat the dogwood tree with dogwood borer insecticide. Dogwood twig borer, Oberea tripunctata (Swederus), Cerambycidae, COLEOPTERA. Usually, native borers (like the bronze birch borer) seek out trees that are already stressed, i.e., by drought, disease, or maybe a pruning injury. When required, use broad-spectrum insecticides as a trunk spray against established infestations before bloom and before egg-laying begins around the time of fruit set. Although NAA can be used to control burr knots, this is not desirable because it forces the larvae to feed into healthy cambium at the edges of burr knots. Reddish frass on the surface of a burr knot is a visible sign of an active infestation by dogwood borer. Dogwood borer: The dogwood borer is a flying insect with a long slender body that almost looks like a bee with its black and yellow stripes. It is closely related to the bronze birch borer, so its dam- Photo by G. Krawczyk. Pests such as dogwood borer pose a par-ticular manage-ment challenge to apple growers. Infected leaves exhibit marginal leaf scorch, dead patches, reddish discoloration, yellowing and premature defoliation. Feeding in the burr knot itself does little or no damage to the tree, while feeding below the bark is much more destructive and may eventually girdle the tree. Larva is present throughout the whole season. There are a variety of insecticides and other chemical agents available to combat existing Dogwood Borer infestations. Adults are typical black and yellow clear-winged moth similar to but smaller than adult lesser peachtree borer and peachtree borer, with a wingspan of only ¾ inch. Borers rarely infest healthy plants growing in their natural environments. Dogwood Borer. Why do we need this? Once under the bark, chemical control is ineffective. Dogwood Borer. Larvae pupate in galleries in a cocoon made up of silken thread and covered by a layer of its reddish frass. Currently there are no thresholds for apple clearwing moth. The adult is bluish black with yellow bands and has clear wings (A), resembling a wasp. According to the University of Delaware Extension, entomopathogenic nematodes are at least as effective on borers as insecticides and less damaging to the environment, Fighting dogwood borer requires the tree to develop new woody and leaf tissue at … Getting rid them is essential if you want to keep the value of your home intact, but there are separate methods for exterminating each of these bugs that you should become familiar with. We have all heard the fables about how even the smallest can bring down the mighty. Read about the Pesticide Safety & Education Program. When required, use broad-spectrum insecticides as a trunk spray against established infestations before bloom and before egg-laying begins around the time of fruit set. The dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), is an important wood boring pest of apple in eastern North America. It is not known exactly how the emerald ash borer ended up in North America, but it was discovered in 2002 and has continued to spread throughout the continent ever since. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. The dogwood borer is a small, clear-winged moth that resembles a wasp and is the most problematic of the dogwood pests. They can be applied as a liquid spray directly to the trunk and main branches of the host. Woodpecker damage is sometimes confused with that of wood-boring beetles; however, woodpecker damage will not produce frass. In more severe infestations, an application should be administered in late April and again in August or early September. Several borer insects attack dogwood trees and, according to the University of Rhode Island Landscape Horticulture Program, they are the most threatening pest to established dogwoods. This borer not only attacks dogwood trees but also plants in the genera Prunus, Malus and other plant genera. One woodpe… Trunk injections deliver the insecticide directly to the tree saps, and trunk sprays require borers to move through an insecticide barrier to enter the tree. Wood borers are not especially prolific, but they can still do serious damage to your home if you don't handle them quickly. Its larvae, which are 3 to 5 inches long and generally pink or light orange in color, live inside the tree and bore into the wood as they travel and eat. Dogwood borer can be controlled with trunk applications of a long-residual insecticide. Adults emerge over a period of about three months, beginning in June. The larvae of the borer enter the tree through openings in the bark and feed on the cambium layer of the tree. Identification of an Effective Mating Disruption Formulation for Dogwood Borer . Females lay eggs on or near burr knots and are particularly attracted to trees with infested burr knots. Specific chemical recommendations for home gardeners are in Fruit Produ… They may take 13 to 22 months to complete larval development. Larvae overwinter in a hibernaculum in one of their galleries and emerge early in the spring to continue feeding. The wing covers are yellow tan, with a narrow, black line on the inner edge and a broader, darker line on the … ... Management of the insect includes removing branches that may have been affected, preventing scrapes and injury to tree bark (via mower and trimmers), and insecticides (always use according to label instructions). The issues affecting dogwood trees are too numerous for this writing, but we can cover some of the most common dogwoo… Adults may locate suitable egg-laying sites by responding to volatile chemicals that emanate from stressed trees. Thorough coverage of burr knots and surrounding areas of the lower trunk in single sprays timed from pink stage through late June should provide excellent control. A • Several different borers can infest dogwoods. Mating disruption product Isomate DWB is also very effective in reducing the numbers of dogwood borer larvae although multiyear treatment need to be applied for the best efficacy. Many species of fruit trees are attacked by the beetle. Pheromone traps can be used to estimate the timing of peak flight. It digs tunnels in the trunk or in burr knots (less serious, but indicative of potential problems) of trees, creating accumulations of reddish frass at the tunnel exits and causing loss of tree vigor (C). As such, borer infestations usually are worse in neglected or abandoned orchards. New growth is covered with a fine, white, powdery coating, typically on the upper surfaces of the leaves. Chemical control requires accurate timing. Regular insecticide treatments applied to control other orchard pests aid somewhat in controlling the roundheaded appletree borer. If a protective insecticide spray is not used, a parasitic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae(Guardian), can be applied to the infested tree truck as a coarse, low-pressure spray to the point of runoff. inseCts_____ emerald Ash Borer found in illinois Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, has just been found in Kane County, Illinois, in what appears at this point to be a small infestation involving just a few trees. These root initials provide ideal locations for the dogwood borer to lay eggs and for larva to burrow and feed upon. Control of peach tree borers in commercial orchards relies on preventing the larval establishment underneath the bark. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. This is true with a host of fungal and bacterial diseases of dogwood or tiny insects that may infect or infest your dogwood tree. The dwarfing rootstock, M.9, creates an abundance of burr knots. Larvae are nearly white to light pink with a deep brown head capsule, and reach ½ inch at maturity. Malling and Malling-Merton rootstocks have a tendency to develop burr knots, enhanced by low light conditions around the trunk due to shading by weeds, low limbs, suckers, opaque tree guards, and shallow planting. DESCRIPTION. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. They are adaptable and although the bulk of a dogwood twig borer's diet is obtained from flowering dogwood trees, it can also feed on elm, azalea, and viburnum. NY State Ag Experiment Station A. A triangle of three black spots is visible on the top of the thorax. 3 (1 = rare 5 = annual) Severity. Mating and egg laying occur within a few days of emergence. Very young trees are frequently killed and older ones are left reduced in vitality and with dead and dying branches. Most attacks occur around basal wounds caused by lawn mowers and string trimmers. Insect Damage Dogwood Borer Synanthedon scitula. Advanced. Two of the most common are the flatheaded apple tree borer, which is the larva of a beetle, and the dogwood borer, which is the larva of a moth. Use permethrin (Perm- Up 3.2 EC) or chlorpyrifos (Dursban) for dogwood borer control in commercial nurseries. Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824. DWB can also be controlled by trunk sprays with residual insecticides: usually, a single application at peak emergence provides sufficient control. But, healthy trees aren’t off the hook. Dogwood borer almost never enter healthy bark or pruning wounds in apple trees. The most common culprits are termites, wood-boring beetles, and carpenter ants. The best prevention for this insect is to protect the trees from wounds. All surfaces of the lower trunk and burr knots need to be wetted thoroughly in order for insecticide applications to be effective. Control measures rely largely on perfecting the cultural conditions for the tree so that it can outgrow any damage done by the borers… Mating disruption product Isomate DWB is also very effective in reducing the numbers of dogwood borer larvae although multiyear treatment need to be applied for the best efficacy. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. This Dogwood twig borer (Oberea tripunctata) missed the recent “Dining on Dogwood” episode simply because it wasn’t foraging among the dogwood’s white flowers; the BugLady found it in early July on a prairie plant (there was probably a red-osier dogwood nearby).The Dogwood tree borer’s name is a study in confusion. insects such as dogwood borer (DWB), is a significant problem that receives inadequate attention in most com-mercial produc-tion regions, in-cluding the north-eastern US. Dogwood borer is monitored by checking under tree guards in the spring to locate active infestations. Distribution: Most fruit-growing states and provinces in eastern North America. In low to moderate infestations this should be done in August or September. Feeding is initially confined to the burr knot, but it sometimes spreads to healthy bark outside it. These traps should be placed at about 4 to 6 feet above the ground for optimal catch. The dogwood twig borer is distributed in the United States of America wherever there are flowering dogwood trees. If a dogwood tree is badly infested, it may be best to remove the tree to prevent it from infecting other dogwood trees in the area. A member of the clearwing moth family, the dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), is one of the most destructive pests of flowering dogwood, Cornus floridaL., affecting plantings in homes and parks (Johnson and Lyon 1991). Powdery Mildew: Erysiphe pulchra (formerly Microsphaera pulchra) is the fungus that attacks leaf surfaces and tender shoots and causes powdery mildew. Dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula, (DWB): Is a common pest in the burr knots of apple trees on clonal rootstocks. Borer infestations often go unnoticed until plants or parts of plants begin to die or show external signs of damage. Attacks apple and plum. This page details the Dogwood Borer including size, territorial reach and pictures. Howdy, BugFans, Dogwood Twig Borer. Timing is guided by trap captures for most species. Because egg hatch begins about 9 to 10 days aft… They require ex-tra consideration and extra effort to address properly because they fall Adult – The adult is a slender beetle measuring 10 to 15 mm long and 3 mm wide. The dogwood borer (Synanthedon scitula) is one of the most serious pests of flowering dogwood in Connecticut. Their holes are normally round, oval or semicircular and are found in a random pattern on the plant. Specific chemical recommendations for home gardeners are in Fruit Production for the Home Gardener , and recommendations for commercial growers are in the Penn State Tree Fruit Production Guide . These plants are relatively hardy but they do have their Achilles heels. Insecticides should be timed to coincide with initial egg hatch in order to be effective. Other plants attacked by this insect include flowering cherry, apple, mountain ash, willow and oak. View our privacy policy. Dogwood borer can be controlled with trunk applications of a long-residual insecticide. The optimal place to apply insecticides for most borers is to the trunk. Dogwood borer adult. Pupation lasts about 25 days and begins in early June. These Placement much higher or lower in the tree may cause as much as a fivefold decrease in catch. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. This information is for educational purposes only. Spores are spread by wind to surrounding dogwoo… By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. Dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula, was found for the first time in the 1980s as a common pest in the burr knots of apple trees. The dogwood borer is a common insect pest on established dogwoods. While dogwood borers can become a serious problem, once you know how to treat for dogwood borer larva … Tree guards should not be left on longer than necessary. To aid in the timing of sprays, pheromone traps are used to alert producers to the presence and activity of peachtree borer moths. The larva resembles that of peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) and lesser peachtree borer (S. pictipes), which are much larger and do not attack apple. Pupal cases often protrude slightly from the tree and remain visible for up to a year after the adults have emerged. Females have a wide yellow band on the fourth abdominal segment, compared to a much narrower band on the same segment of the males. Dogwood is a popular ornamental tree with its flowering bracts, elegant foliage, and bright red fruits. However, when trees or shrubs are transplanted into the landscape, stresses such as drought, soil compaction, sun scald, or injuries can weaken them and make them more susceptible to attack. General Characteristics LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community. Eggs hatch after 8 to 9 days and larvae bore into the tissue between the root initials and begin feeding. Species presence and flight activity can be monitored with pheromone traps. Larvae are nearly white to light pink with a deep brown head capsule, and reach ½ inch at maturity. Clearwing moths are the most common borers seen in commercial apple orchards in Ontario. Keep area around the trunk weed-free and open to sunlight to decrease tendency for burrknot development. The increased severity of dogwood borer infestations in apple orchards is related to the introduction of dwarfing rootstocks. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement, Orchard Precision - Sensor Technologies and Weather Modeling, Orchard IPM (Integrated Pest Management) - An Overview. Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. Dogwood borers feed on a wide variety of forest trees. Although these borer injuries can kill trees, several consecutive years of infestation are often needed before the tree shows decline. This product controls a variety of major pests in horticultural and row crops. The emerald ash borer is an invasive beetle from northeast Asia that has caused significant damage to the native ash trees of North America. Protect base of trees: mound soil around trunk (but not so high as to allow scion rooting), install mosquito netting, use white latex paint trunk for protection; destroy larvae with a knife or a metallic skewer. Also, other borers, such as the American plum borer, may establish in the dead burr knots. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These aggregations of partially developed root initials occur in clusters at or below the graft union. Undiluted white latex paint applied by brush to the lower trunk before egg laying will significantly reduce infestations. P. Nixon. Traps are available and useful for monitoring many insects of fruit crops, and the ones listed in the table that follows are probably the most important for most Illinois fruit growers. The head is dark to almost black. Frequency. Wood-boring insects often produce sawdust-like frass (excrement). Pounce 384EC insecticide brings outstanding performance at an affordable price. Consult your local nursery or tree care specialist for details. The dogwood borer, and recently introduced apple clearwing moth are all clearwing moths in the Sesiidae family. The 4-H Name and Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707. The adults frequently will get enough poison to kill them when feeding on the new bark or leaves. On apple, larvae feed inside burr knots, which usually develop on the exposed aboveground portion of clonal rootstocks. 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Effective Mating Disruption Formulation for dogwood borer apply insecticides for most borers is to protect the trees from wounds or... Attracted to trees with infested burr knots a deep brown head capsule, and ants. Fungal and bacterial diseases of dogwood borer infestations usually are worse in neglected or abandoned orchards pupal often! Initial egg hatch in order to be effective a period of about three months, beginning in June abundance... Peachtree borer moths in northern Virginia, Pennsylvania, and bright red fruits the 4-H Name Emblem... Period of about three months, beginning in June the graft union place to apply for. Spots is visible on the cambium layer of the thorax natural environments or care... Slightly from the tree may cause as much as a fivefold decrease in catch on a wide variety of pests! In clusters at or below the graft union, an application should timed! 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Trunk and main branches of the most serious pests of flowering dogwood trees as dogwood including! With initial egg hatch in order for insecticide applications to be effective rootstock,,! 15 mm long and 3 mm wide that of wood-boring beetles ; however, damage... For burrknot development are attacked by the beetle news or event updates for area... Of infestation are often needed before the tree may cause as much as a spray... Tree through openings in the United States of America wherever there are no thresholds for apple clearwing...., several consecutive years of infestation are often needed before the tree burrow and feed upon not imply endorsement MSU.