For indifference, the contribution from outsourcing needs to fallto \$5 per unit. An important characteristic of a random varia­ble is its expected value or mean. To be more specific, the RADR procedure replaces the discount rate with a new term p, which is the sum of the initial discount rate and risk factor k. That is p = r + k. If, for instance, r equals 10% and k equals 3%, the new risk-adjusted discount rate becomes 13%. 504.50, it would be difficult for the decision-maker to measure the degree of risk asso­ciated with each action and thus arrive at a clear- cut decision. Thus, this criterion suggests that the decision-­maker should attempt to minimize his maximum regret. If A chooses A3, B will chose B1. Risk management is important in a business. One major drawback in the use of the EMV, EOL or EVPI is the method used to assign probabilities to the events. The RADR is often made us of in capital budget­ing (i.e., long-term investment) decisions. For example, if the demand is 40 salads, we will make a maximumprofit of \$80 if they all sell. 600) (8.6), A3 (100) = 0.5 (Rs. Risk is objective but uncertainty is subjective; risk can be measured or quantified but uncertainty cannot be. In fact, it is easier to compre­hend ‘trees’ easily than tables when we move to more realistic business situations involving various decisions (branches). To answer this question we have to find out the EMV of such a gamble which is: Here EMV is the sum of an infinite arithmetic series of 1’s. Project A has a lower average profit but is also less risky (less variability of possible profits). Thus we get σA = Rs. Thus the external purchase price only needs to increaseby \$1 per unit (or \$1/ \$6 = 17%). It is not possible for you to wait for some time to study the nature (or determine the level) of demand, nor can you place more than one order. Fig. In a Monte Carlo simulation, these revenues and costs could have random numbers assigned to them: A computer could generate 20-digit random numbers such as98125602386617556398. Unfortunately the sample becomes self-selecting and so may be biased. -4000) x .80 = Re. When decisions are based on the EMV criterion, it is implicitly based on the assumption that a decision-­maker is able to withstand the short-run fluctua­tions and is a continuous participant in comparable EMV decision problems. Profits are therefore maximised at 50 salads and amount to \$90. If there is oil, the probability that she will say there aregood prospects is 95%. 8.9 illustrates the relationship between K* and project risk. The specific consequence or outcome depends not only on the decision (A1, A2, or A3) that is made but also on the event (D1, D2, or D3) that oc­curs. The solu­tion will be in terms of mixed strategies (where the specific strategy to be used is selected randomly with a pre-determined probability). All businesses face risk. Since EMV is the same under two alternative actions the decision-maker would re­main indifferent between them. It is the process ofunderstanding and managing the risks that an organisation is inevitablysubject to. It may be noted that once subjective probabilities are introduced, the distinction between risk and uncertainty gets blurred. These will replace the states of nature and there will be as many columns as strategies. (b)   Choose the best option at each decision point and recommend a course of action to management. Thus, according to our criterion, project A is less ri­sky than project b. Therefore, product A would be chosen resulting in a minimum pay-off of 20 compared to a minimum pay-off of 10 for products B and C. In fact, uncertainty can even be more stressful than knowing for certain that bad outcomes are heading your way. normative rules for decision-making under risk and uncertainty are not followed [1, 2]. Keywords: Decision making, risk, uncertainty, intuition, probability Introduction Decision making Decision taking is a multidimensional process and it is not simply to make one choice. One may, for instance, ask what is the probability of successfully introducing a new breakfast food (like Maggie). In other words, by assigning subjective probabilities to decision problems, deci­sion-making under uncertainty can easily be con­verted into risk analysis. 167.50, Rs. Most parlour games are of this type. â€˜Regret' in this context is defined as the opportunity loss through havingmade the wrong decision. Decision trees force the decision maker toconsider the logical sequence of events. 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