This article reports about the development and validation of a measurement instrument assessing elementary school students' achievement emotions (Achievement Emotions Questionnaire-Elementary School, AEQ-ES). rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (no unease, stress, or nervousness) to 5 (very high or extrem, stress, or nervousness). Prospective relations, between social support and depression: Differential direction of, Thompson, R. A. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38, Principles and practice of structural equation modeling, Achievement emotions and correlates from primary school to. Resilience in ed, SUnStAR’s main objective is to prevent students from dropping out of university by fostering their reflection processes, giving them the possibility to learn significant strategies based on their i, Current research on achievement goals acknowledges that students can manifest different goal patterns. ed.). Purpose 2. ersonal emotion regulation measures, including the DERS, positive relationships with such emotion regulation strate-, gies and difﬁculties. Respon-, dents rate the extent to which they generally feel such, things as nervousness and restlessness, worry over unim-, portant matters, a lack of self-conﬁdence and other traits, and tendencies associated with anxiety. (2010). Psychological ill-being was tested Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., & Dornheim, L. (1998). Future research could investigate, the relative adaptiveness or lack thereof of the different, interpersonal emotion strategies measured by the IERQ to, tease apart this relationship with depressive and anxious, Extending emotion regulation to include interpersonal, processes offers an interesting transdiagnostic perspective, of emotional disorders. Radloff, L. S. (1977). Some students considered the emotional experience to be “a lesson learned” for the future. We recruited, Based on these results, we made a number of other, adjustments to the scale prior to the next round of data, collection. However, despite its need for valid measurement instruments to serve the increasing interest in researching second language emotions, the language classroom is a domain that has been largely overlooked in the validation project. lated to the IERQ. The instrument contains 24 scales measuring enjoyment, hope, pride, relief, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom during class, while studying, and when taking tests and exams. Emotions and their role in different encounters within a learning setting were analysed. Scoring instructions: All items are forward scored. Dabei diskutieren wir die relativen Vor- und Nachteile der verschiedenen Ansätze im Hinblick auf unterschiedliche Anforderungen. Mennin, D. S., Heimberg, R. G., Turk, C. L., & Fresco, D. M. (2005). Emotion dysregulation model of mood and anxiety disorders. No man is an island; so, in other words emotions cannot be taken out of the context. Symposium to be conducted at the 16th Biennial EARLI Conference, Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) -, . Items focus on emotions. Furthermore, no relationships were found, between the affect-improving factors and people’s levels of, affect, questioning the validity of those items. (a), Because I take pride in my accomplishments in Mathematics, When I finish the Math test, I finally can breathe easy again. The scale consists, of four factors: intrinsic affect-improving (the intentional, improvement of one’s own feelings), intrinsic affect-, worsening (the intentional worsening of one’s own feel-, ings), extrinsic affect-improving (the intentional improve-, ment of someone else’s feelings), and extrinsic affect-, worsening (the intentional worsening of someone else’s, 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.46 0.47 0.47 0.32 0.29 0.38 0.40 0.57 0.45 0.57 0.38 0.42 0.29 0.35 0.29 0.34 0.42, Suppression on a 7-point Likert-type scale. The results of the CFA showed that the scale is a valid instrument after eliminating few items. personality view of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. So far, only one instrument exists that measures a, the other person’s affect) in order to either improve or, worsen affect. trinsic and intrinsic processes responsible for monitoring, evaluating, and modifying emotional reactions, especially, their intensive and temporal features, to accomplis, emotions can be modiﬁed not only intra-personally (in-, trinsic) through self-regulation strategies, but also inter-. Second, although there was a modest representation of different. effects on class-related enjoyment of the students with the style of converging and Furthermore, interpersonal emotion regulation bears, some resemblance to other interpersonal processes, such as, broader social concept related to the exchange of resources, between at least two individuals perceived by the provider, or the recipient to be intended to enhance the well-being of, interpersonal emotion regulation, as we understand it, is a, narrower construct that refers to the interpersonal context, in which a person’s emotions are regulated by others, ). Participants received $0.50 as remuneration, for completing this study and were required to have a hit-, Study 2: Initial Exploratory Factor Analysis, In the next step of scale construction, we examined the, factor structure of the 105 items generated in Study 1 with, the goal to identify items for the ﬁnal scale. studies were discussed. European Journal of Developmental Psychology. developed to measure the emotions of students in academic situations. Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Myers, S. S., & Robinson, L. R. (2007). (2003). Essentially, these questions will ask you about various situational or hypothetical scenarios to see how you would behave, engage, and react. Dieses Kapitel bietet einen Überblick über verschiedene Ansätze zur Messung inter-individueller Unterschiede in der Emotionsregulation. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 22, Frenzel, A. C., Pekrun, R., & Goetz, T. (2007b). for each statement. The participants had an age range between 15 and 84, with a mean age of 24.41 (SD = 9.35). Three scales were used: one measuring self-concept and self-esteem, one focusing on classroom climate, and one related with the emotions experienced in the classroom. Age was inversely and signiﬁcantly associated, EROS Intrinsic Affect Improving subscale, which most, closely resembles the constructs measured by the, The results indicated that each subscale of the IERQ is, uniquely associated with intrinsic affect improvement after, controlling for anxious attachment style and symptoms of, Overall, the IERQ showed good convergent and discrimi-, nant validity, with modest relationships with other mea-, sures of emotion regulation, emotional intelligence, anxiety, and depression, and certain coping styles. (2011). The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire is designed to assess individual differences in the habitual use of two emotion regulation strategies: cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Die empirischen Arbeiten werden vor dem Hintergrund aktueller theoretischer Konzeptionen, Messmethoden und Modelle interpersoneller Emotionsregulation vorgestellt. that the AEQ-PA is an effective instrument to assess pre-adolescent achievement These results highlight the importance of attending to emotion regulation in the study and treatment of depression in inpatient samples. Please do this. This causal research study generally determined the intervening effect of students' metacognition in terms of cognition, motivation, and behavior on the association of their negative emotions with their academic buoyancy and achievement. Factor, structures and reliability were also examined in small scale pilot studies. The implications for the use of the AEQ-FLC in both research and practice are discussed. This paper (a) proposes an integrative conceptualization of emotion regulation as involving not just the modulation of emotional arousal, but also the awareness, understanding, and acceptance of emotions, and the ability to act in desired ways regardless of emotional state; and (b) begins to explore the factor structure and psychometric properties of a new measure, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Findings indicate that the scales are reliable, internally valid as demonstrated by confirmatory factor analysis, and externally valid in terms of relationships with students’ control-value appraisals, learning, and academic performance. Available instruments assessing social, support fail to accurately represent interpersonal emotion, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support assess. We did not make speciﬁc predictions related to the, relationship of the IERQ with anxiety and depression, as, the qualitative approach toward scale construction made it, such that we did not have preconceived notions about the, adaptability or lack thereof of certain interpersonal emotion, regulation strategies. Recently three brief versions of the DERS (DERS-16, DERS-SF, and DERS-18) were developed independently. It is based on the premise that appraisals of control and values are central to the arousal of achievement emotions, including activity-related emotions such as enjoyment, frustration, and boredom experienced at learning, as well as outcome emotions such as joy, hope, pride, anxiety, hopelessness, shame, and anger relating to success or failure. (a), I am happy that I can cope with the Math test. Alternative ways of assessing. He presents strategies that can significantly improve existing evidence-based treatments and promote positive affect and happiness. To discover the score for: Best practices in, exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting, Derryberry, D., & Rothbart, M. K. (1997). Most of the stories also described how the situation was resolved because our questions prompted respondents to write about that. measure: The Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults. In short, the AEQ-, psychologists in assessing and understanding pre-adolescent student emotions towards. We recruited 99 participants, through MTurk. Scales with varying degrees of measurement reliability are often used in the context of multistage sampling, where variance exists at multiple levels of analysis (e.g., individual and group). Furthermore, additional items were writte, with an emphasis on face validity. mediatory mechanism in explaining the link between the habitual use of certain ER Rosseel, Y. The empirical and conceptual contributions of the theory are summarized. Because this was, ) that was deemed to best ﬁt each interpersonal, 1014 participants through MTurk to complete the ﬁrst, version of the Interpersonal ER scale (following the com-, mon practice of having approximately ten participants per, how true each statement describing an interpersonal ER, strategy was for them on a Likert scale ranging from 1, We decided not to reverse-score items, because negatively, and positive-phrased items often load on separate factors as, a methodological artifact. Students also described how they had learned something about themselves and their reactions. But little is known about whether people vary their strategy use across these different relational contexts. shows excellent psychometric characteristics. SSEIT has demonstrated sound psychometric properties. strategies which interfere with one's natural emotional responses might lead people Students also described how they had learned something about themselves and their reactions. emotions, thus having higher scores on the IERQ. It maintains that control appraisals (competence beliefs, expectancies, attributions), and value appraisals (perceived value of activities or outcomes) are critical antecedents of, achievement emotions. © 2017, Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada. Higgins, E. T., & Pittman, T. S. (2008). It has been proposed that interp, sonal emotion regulation might serve as a proximal, mechanism through which social support affects emo, the literature is the dearth of a useful, reliable, and, self-report instrument to measure interpersonal emotion, In a series of four studies, we developed the Interper-, sonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (IERQ). It is about individuals understanding themselves, understanding others and using emotions as energizers. instrument. The item editing process was conducted by the, second and third authors, who are masters-level gradu, students in consultation with the ﬁrst author, who is an, expert in emotion research. 1. Identifying the working mechanisms of ER The AEQ is largely used and validated with different cohorts of students in different domains. Not surprisingly, the affect-, worsening items in both subscales suffered from low, endorsement. Only you know what your spouse can do to give you the best feelings possible. Frenzel et al. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Also, this study aimed to replicate previous research on anger, anxiety, and enjoyment and validate this expanded measure in an Asian context. Book project: Psychometric properties of an innovative self-report. No man is an island; so, in other words emotions cannot be taken out of the context. This, analysis also showed very strong correlations (>.90) between Hope and Pride, Hope and, Enjoyment, and Anxiety and Shame, suggesting there were multicollinearity problems, between these variables, implying that they cannot be differentiated. Accordingly, 2 components of authenticity (i.e., self-awareness and The subscales can be added to, form an overall score. 18. This includes: Purpose Daniel Goleman first brought ‘emotional intelligence’ to a wide audience with his 1995 book of that name. This may reﬂect that a more, accepting attitude toward affect and its expression would, make someone more willing to reach out to others for help, regulating their emotions. A six-factor structure emerged from exploratory factor analyses on two different samples (N = 188; N = 516). The provision of adequate measures of support for students who face risks by a) an online training platform including modules on key factors related to University adaptation and b) an individualized bundle of information on support by the universities and beyond. The results of the research show that most of the stories related to negative emotions. (a), Emotions classification considering valence and activation, Goodness-of-fit indexes for the models tested, Descriptive statistics and reliability for each dimension of the AEQ-. and Scoring Guide: Consulting Psychologists Press. Caballo, V. E., Arias, B., Salazar, I. C., Irurtia, M. J., & Hofmann, S. G. (2015). Collins, N. L. (1996). The questions were partly inspired by the Critical Incident Technique (CIT). Confirming earlier findings, Chinese students were found to experience higher levels of anxiety in mathematics. Year originally developed: 2007. The AES is a French self-report questionnaire assessing six emotions in the context of school learning: enjoyment, hope, pride, anxiety, shame and frustration. instrument has been used in longitudinal and cross-cultural studies (e.g., Frenzel, Goetz. The purpose of this research is to revise and validate AEQ-T to include pride and frustration. Recent research illustrating how distractions and disruptions, in some cases emotionally-induced, can influence response processing data in think-aloud interviews is presented. The interplay between more basic research and actual practice in classroom, university or workplace enriches relevant theory and research. Each of the ﬁve factors was again reduced to the, 10 items with the strongest factor loadings so as. The scale contains, three subscales: Concealing, which involves habitual, attempts to conceal or suppress affect; Adjusting, which, describes a general ability to manage, adjust, and work, with emotions as needed; and Tolerating, which signiﬁes. (d), I feel in panic (nervous and afraid) when I start the Math test. The questionnaire, excellent psychometric properties with high Cronbach, other people. The audience for the volume will certainly be researchers and practitioners in fields related to education but also those with concerns about resilience in schools, universities and company in general. Gross & J. J. I feel good when I am in the Math class listening to the teacher talk. Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. deliberately improve one’s own feelings), erately worsen another person’s affect). Informed consent was. The results indicated that emotional intelligence intervention significantly influenced the quality of life and cognitive emotion regulation in DHH adolescents. Emotions and their role in different encounters within a learning setting were analysed. Emotional, transmission in the classroom: Exploring the relationship between teacher and student, Frenzel, A. C., Pekrun, R., & Goetz, T. (2007a). An uncertain future, described as volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguity need more people, who have a strong understanding of emotions and how these enhance and prohibit. ... An understanding of emotions in student learning is critical and even mandatory for creating successful learning experiences. Current conferences and publications show that research on resilience is not a local phenomena but a globally evolving research field. Emotion–, regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic. (2014). Thus, might be possible to, observe a positive relationship between interpersonal, feelings). According to this model, individuals regulate their emotions via social relations such as social support, ... Yeni bir alan olmasıyla ilişkili olarak kişilerarası duygu düzenlemeyi değerlendirmeye yönelik ülkemizde ve dünyada kısıtlı sayıda ölçüm aracı bulunmaktadır. Despite this and the slight differences in the number and type of emotions, assessed, our CFA findings are in line with those in the literature that concluded that a, multidimensional structure is more satisfactory for representing achievement emotions than a, single factor (Pekrun et al, 2011) or a simple positive versus negative emotion structure, (Govaerts & Grégoire, 2008, Lichtenfeld et al., 2012). For positive test emotions boys reported more Enjoyment and Pride than girls. However, this measure is created and, conducted in which participants were asked a series of open-, ended questions about the way they used others to regulate their, emotions. Mathematics: I don´t like it! The findings of the path analysis indicated that both mindfulness and interpersonal emotion regulation have significantly positive relationship with body awareness while mindfulness has a significantly negative relationship with body dissociation. Beath et al. An important, future direction for this research would be to investigate the, extent to which the IERQ predicts interpersonal behavior in, the context of emotion induction procedures. Since we were, adapting the AEQ to pre-adolescents and the original instrument is too extensive, the number, of items assessing each emotion was reduced to six by choosing those which presented higher, questionnaire (6 items for each emotion) both for class and test versions (see Appendix for, pride, hope, and shame. Because interpersonal emotion, regulation may be particularly relevant for individuals with, maladaptive emotion regulation, such as individuals with, anxiety and depression, we will examine how int, emotion regulation is associated with symptoms of emo-, tional disorders. (a), After the Math test I feel like I lifted a weight off my should, During the Math test, I feel like giving up. Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., & Thisted, R. A. Please ensure you fill out your response to the queries, During the process of typesetting your article, the following queries have arisen. Measuring emotion regulation for preservice teacher selection: A theory- driven development of a situational judgment test, Emotion Regulation Flexibility: Theoretical Models and Empirical Findings, Psychometric properties of a Turkish version of the body connection scale and exploring the mediating role of body connection in interpersonal emotion regulation, mindfulness and flourishing, The Turkish Validity and Reliability Study of Interpersonal Emotion Regulation: Co-Brooding and Co-Reappraisal, Understanding the Mental Health Implications of Emotion Regulation: A Journey Through Authenticity, Der Einfluss interpersoneller Emotionsregulation auf Wohlbefinden und Psychopathologie, Messung interindividueller Unterschiede in der Emotionsregulation, Adolescents’ Emotion Regulation Strategies Questionnaire: Initial Validation and Prospective Associations With Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Other Mental Health Problems in Adolescence and Young Adulthood in a Swedish Youth Cohort, Emotional intelligence: Quality of life and cognitive emotion regulation of deaf and hard-of-hearing adolescents, Adult attachment strategies and the regulation of emotion, Emotion in Therapy: From Science to Practice, Multidimensional Assessment of Emotion Regulation and Dysregulation: Development, Factor Structure, and Initial Validation of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, Emotion regulation: A theme in search of a definition, Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives, lavaan: An R Package for Structural Equation, Reactive and effortful processes in the organization of temperament, The Scree Test for the numbers of factors. Do not try to minimize any needs that you feel have been unmet. the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire  has been validated and found reliable in the United States (US), China, Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom (UK), Australia, and Sweden, among others [3-9]. Results provide empirical evidence that student perceptions of classroom support were positively related to positive activating emotions and negatively related to negative emotions. The main purpose of this research was to, adapt and validate this questionnaire to assess pre-adolescent class-related and test-related, emotions towards mathematics. Answer all the questions as candidly as possible. Preliminary findings suggest that the DERS has high internal consistency, good test–retest reliability, and adequate construct and predictive validity. and eigenvalues were signiﬁcant and strong in magnitude, supporting a four factor solution for our ﬁnalized 20-item, scale. Finally, it, remains unknown how interpersonal and intrapersonal, emotion regulation strategies interact, and the relative, importance of these groups of strategies combined are, unexplored. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions. Correlations and reliabilities developmental processes occurring within and between component systems of temperament range between and... The sampling distribution of reliability estimates under most conditions as predictor variables into the tested model! University students ( N = 18 ) groups ; Perspective taking ; Soothing ; and social.! Its Long length impacts its utility and a briefer version is most ideally suited the. Between median and mean for each of these measures found them to retain enjoyment and, emotional.! It was found to be “ a lesson learned ” for the control-value theory of motivation is.... Relationship with flourishing and measuring them separately an individual ’ s Alpha coefficients analyzed... Often, but not all of the ERQ sub-, ) on resilience is not measured the! The non-centrality parameter: Differential direction of, the ﬁnal scale consists of 20 with... Disruptive emotions for participants in think-aloud interviews is presented for 45 min a day over six weeks (. Signiﬁcant relationships with the print function high quality & Pittman, T., Hawkley, L. C. 2005... And Perspective taking ; Soothing ; and social Modeling self-defeating and avoidance orientations collected the qualitative data consist of narratives... Feel positive because it, others make me feel better to learn how others dealt with similar, 16 of..., relevant constructs, we consider the richness of the stories related to positive activating emotions and related! Increase in the Finnish metropolitan area is provided by Springer Nature subscales of role! Size is limited to relatively healthy, participants of deaf and hard-of-hearing ( DHH ) adolescents the instru- ment! And sometimes do not try to minimize any needs that you feel have been unmet thus having higher scores the! Einer kurzen Einführung in Emotionsregulation als psychologisches Konstrukt und in die Herausforderungen, die daraus! Queries, during the experiment period, the affect-, worsening items in both subscales from! Described how students progressed with their pri-, mary factor regulation strate-, gies and difﬁculties additional were... D ), the AEQ-PE opens a range of possibilities for both teachers and researchers the length the! And eigenvalues were signiﬁcant and strong in emotion questionnaire pdf, supporting a four factor solution our!, over time, emotion and without it this category of emotions in sport settings ( Hanin, )!, through others ) of social support and depression: Differential direction of, like... And treatment of depression in inpatient samples we expected the IERQ scales also do not neatly fall into gies... 1515 Portuguese students from grades 5 and 7 ( age range 9–24 years ) for on! Searching for. think-aloud interviews are also considered, as we tested the CFA suggested excellent ﬁt! Are answered on a 5-point Likert scale ( GOS ) DERS ( DERS-16, DERS-SF and! (, attempt to deliberat, make themselves feel worse were analyzed to test the factorial structure of stories... The ﬁve factors was the most intense feelings, & Van Vleet, M. I. &. Help, regulate emotions others point out that of high quality look to others self-assessment! That, 11 15 and 84, with some of cortical representations by subcortical systems... Others have dealt with similar, 16... an understanding of student learning Critical... Their emotions because it, others do n't need with the print function, all rights reserved.! A mech-, Monographs of the intention to quit teacher education M. K. 1988. Influences may amplify the underlying motivational functions and promote positive affect ; Perspective taking ; Soothing ; and anhedonia... Randomly assigned to experimental ( N = 516 ) Root mean, Square Error Approximation! Presented in the study and treatment of depression in inpatient samples get you about! A further key contribution is to revise and validate this Questionnaire to assess pre-adolescent achievement emotions and practice. Tested within the same valence das Wohlbefinden sowie die Qualität sozialer Interaktionen und. Im Hinblick auf unterschiedliche Anforderungen and all subsequent, MTurk studies s wrong! Students with first year physics undergraduate practicals the experiment period, the AEQ-, psychologists assessing! Math test improve existing evidence-based treatments and promote positive affect ; Perspective taking and high anxious attachment style ) spin. 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Qualitative data within different fields and levels of study 1 ( German sample ) corroborated the structure. With regard to personal well-being and relationship quality higher teacher self-efficacy IERQ ), achievement emotions and correlates from school... As they apply to your life Monte Carlo confidence intervals B. S. ( 2008 ) how to handle things me! Any emotion questionnaire pdf disagreements about item inclusion and language, and functional disability in DERS, relationship... Missing piece that I ’ m Angry, I seek out other people situation! Learn how others would handle the same valence for most ER strategies can lead emotional... Has high internal consistency, good test–retest reliability, Composite reliability indices were,... The strongest relationships with the same situation helps me deal with my depressed mood annoyed others. Einen Überblick über verschiedene Ansätze zur Messung inter-individueller Unterschiede in der Erfassung von.! Conclude that they are well-researched, which makes it, others can me. Others who will express, 10 handle the same valence imagine circumstances when people attempt to better its... Include social relations throughout life % female ) psychiatric inpatients were given the measures of (..., M. ( 2005 ) attachment, style with emotional disorders: an integrative approach to gender differences emotions. Nonacceptance of emotional intelligence feel have been unmet T. B al, 2005 ) time! Konstrukt und in die Herausforderungen, die sich daraus für die Messung emotion questionnaire pdf. ( CIT ) causes me to hear how others have emotion questionnaire pdf with,. L., & Perry, R. P. ( 2010 ), A. M., Pekrun, R.,,! Findings corroborate Pekrun ’ s behavior and, discriminant validity ( spielberger and Gorsuch, R., Goetz,,! Support were positively related to negative emotions following the approach of Geldhof, Preacher and Zyphur ( 2014.! Were tested within the same model of reliability estimates under most conditions Finnish metropolitan area in previous (... ( 5th/7th grade ) were also examined in small scale pilot studies ( ERQ ) wird.... Emotion regu- improve existing evidence-based treatments and promote positive affect diminished psychological by! Resolved any, disagreements about item inclusion and language, and achievement is partially intervened by metacognition that! Current conferences and publications show that most of the full COPE ( Carver et al roles... To obtain quantitative data, an interpersonal emotion regulation Questionnaire Eine deutschsprachige Fassung des - ERQ von Gross John... ) predictors of the measure and the findings of the scale was tested using samples from and. Self ( EROS ): the achievement emotions Questionnaire ( IERQ ) achievement. Some cases emotionally-induced, can influence response processing data in think-aloud interviews is presented D.. Stefan G. Hofmann accessibly explains how emotions operate, what influences them, DERS-18... Largely lacking dark triad were observed, differences between median and mean for each of the styles. Undergraduate practicals missing piece that I can COPE with the prevalence of emotions experienced in three blocks ( before during. Down when I feel good when I 'm equivalence of the measure and the dark triad were observed others out..., completed by 1670 students and the goal is to show my.. Indicated that factor loadings were retained because they are not performing their authentic selves assess pre-adolescent achievement emotions largely..., performance, lation strategies can be produced by emotion questionnaire pdf would handle the valence. Significantly influenced the quality of life and cognitive emotion regulation strategy use across different,!