“If you breached the coast now, the sea would roughly get to Utrecht, in the central Netherlands. The predominant wind direction in the European Netherlands is southwest, which causes a mild maritime climate, with moderately warm summers and cool winters, and typically high humidity. In the 1970s, the party system became more volatile: the Christian Democratic parties lost seats, while new parties became successful, such as the radical democrat and progressive liberal Democrats 66 (D66) or the ecologist party GroenLinks (GL). This point is 323 meter above sea level. In classical music, Jan Sweelinck ranks as the Dutch most famous composer, with Louis Andriessen amongst the best known living Dutch classical composers. Climate change in the Netherlands is already affecting the country. The emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War, and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th, and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, which is now considered informal[39] or incorrect. [173] Like in many other European countries, the Dutch rail network of 3,013 km route is also rather dense. The Netherlands is actively preparing for a sea level rise. [225] In 2015, a vast majority of the inhabitants of the Netherlands (82%) said they had never or almost never visited a church, and 59% stated that they had never been to a church of any kind. The largest below-sea-level depression by surface area is the Caspian Depression of Kazakhstan and Russia. The region of Holland proper consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces, formerly a single province, and earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. This was translated as Neder-landen in contemporary Dutch official documents. By 2050, 17% of Bangladesh would be flooded, displacing 18 million people. [22] Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 14th century. [60] It has been postulated that after deteriorating climate conditions and the Romans' withdrawal, the Frisii disappeared as laeti in c. 296, leaving the coastal lands largely unpopulated for the next two centuries. The city is about 12 feet below sea level. Don Juan of Austria, the new Spanish governor, was forced to concede initially, but within months returned to active hostilities. Amsterdam, Netherlands - -2 The city of Amsterdam lies in the western part of the Netherlands and it is in the northern province of Holland. Other cool things to see in the Netherlands. CET and CEST are used in the European Netherlands, and AST is used in the Caribbean Netherlands. the Vulgate (Bible not in Greek or Hebrew, but Latin; the folks' language) in meaning vulgar, though not in a pejorative sense). The biggest success of the women's national team was winning the European Championship in 1995 and the World Grand Prix in 2007. It became part of the larger Zuiderzee Works in which four polders totalling 2,500 square kilometres (965 sq mi) were reclaimed from the sea. The Leeward Antilles are warmer and drier than the Windward islands. In a warming world with increased rainfall and sea level … [69] When the kingdom of Middle Francia was partitioned in 855, the lands north of the Alps passed to Lothair II and subsequently were named Lotharingia. The country is also subdivided into 21 water districts (as of 2018), governed by a water board (waterschap or hoogheemraadschap), each having authority in matters concerning water management. [242] The Netherlands has nonetheless the reputation of the leader country in environmental and population management. [234] The health care system is in comparison to other Western countries quite effective but not the most cost-effective. Limburger Max Verstappen currently races in Formula One, and was the first Dutchman to win a Grand Prix. In Asia, the Dutch established the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), and the only western trading post in Japan, Dejima. The Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy since 1815, and due to the efforts of Johan Rudolph Thorbecke,[121] became a parliamentary democracy in 1848. Conversely, Islam grew considerably as the result of immigration. Leiden University and in particular KITLV are educational and scientific institutions that to this day share both an intellectual and historical interest in Indonesian studies. Parts of Amsterdam are 4 meters below sea levels! Muslims comprised 4.9% of the total population and followers of other religions (like Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism) comprised the remaining 1.1%.[3]. Coordinates: 52°19′N 5°33′E / 52.317°N 5.550°E / 52.317; 5.550, This article is about the constituent country. The level of ferocity exhibited by both sides can be gleaned from a Dutch chronicler's report:[71]. These are held every four years, or sooner in case the cabinet falls (for example: when one of the chambers carries a motion of no confidence, the cabinet offers its resignation to the monarch). Almost half of the land is below sea level. Suriname followed in 1975. The VWO (comprising atheneum and gymnasium) has 6 grades and prepares for studying at a research university. In 1996 conscription was suspended, and the Dutch army was once again transformed into a professional army. "[58] During the Gallic Wars, the area south and west of the Rhine was conquered by Roman forces under Julius Caesar from 57 BC to 53 BC. The Netherlands must therefore come up with a Plan B within ten years to defend the country against elevated sea levels. the Dutch, the Frisians, and the Germans). The Dutch government subsequently instituted a large-scale programme, the "Delta Works", to protect the country against future flooding, which was completed over a period of more than thirty years. The. Alba boasted of having executed 18,600,[72][73] but this figure does not include those who perished by war and famine. Selling 18 million records,[247] the two singers in the band are the most successful Dutch music artists to this day. When the Dutch royal family was established in 1815, much of its wealth came from Colonial trade. The Dutch part of the Wadden Sea in the north, with its tidal flats and wetlands, is rich in biological diversity, and was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Nature Site in 2009. The language and culture of most of the people who lived in the County of Holland were originally Frisian. [236] Affordability is guaranteed through a system of income-related allowances and individual and employer-paid income-related premiums. 26% percent of the Netherlands is below sea level – and of the rest, 50% is just one meter above. The lowest exposed land on Earth is at the Dead Sea shore, at -413 meters. He established the Archdiocese of Utrecht and became bishop of the Frisians. [117] These changes have resulted in increased frequency of droughts and heatwaves. The traditional alcoholic beverages of this region are beer (strong pale lager) and Jenever, a high proof juniper-flavored spirit, that came to be known in England as gin. Following the sack of Antwerp, delegates from Catholic Brabant, Protestant Holland and Zeeland agreed, at Ghent, to join Utrecht and William the Silent in driving out all Spanish troops and forming a new government for the Netherlands. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (. A politically neutral Delta Commission has formulated an action plan to cope with a sea level rise of 1.10 metres (3.6 ft) and a simultaneous land height decline of 10 centimetres (3.9 in). Global sea level rise has accelerated since the 1960s. There are also sizable populations of Hindu immigrants from India and Sri Lanka, and some Western adherents of Hinduism-oriented new religious movements such as Hare Krishnas. The Netherlands successfully addressed the issue of public finances and stagnating job growth long before its European partners. In the course of the twentieth century this diet changed and became much more cosmopolitan, with most global cuisines being represented in the major cities. The most famous Dutch classical composition is "Canto Ostinato" by Simeon ten Holt, a minimalistic composition for multiple instruments. The deteriorating climate in Scandinavia around 850 BC further deteriorated around 650 BC and might have triggered migration of Germanic tribes from the North. [54][55] The North Sea Germanic Ingaevones inhabited the northern part of the Low Countries. Some Dutch films – mainly by director Paul Verhoeven – have received international distribution and recognition, such as Turkish Delight ("Turks Fruit", 1973), Soldier of Orange ("Soldaat van Oranje", 1977), Spetters (1980) and The Fourth Man ("De Vierde Man", 1983). [62][63], After Roman government in the area collapsed, the Franks expanded their territories in numerous kingdoms. The first great siege was Alba's effort to capture Haarlem and thereby cut Holland in half. Children under 18 are covered for free. [142] In April 2013, unemployment was at 8.2% (or 6.7% following the ILO definition) of the labour force. They meet regularly with the government in the Social-Economic Council. Below Sea Level masters the art of making great ideas tangible and stand out on all platforms, resulting in a better positioning of your brand, organisation or company. [203], The Netherlands is the 12th most densely populated country in the world with a density of 521 per square kilometre (1,350/sq mi). Instability here may cause a rapid acceleration in sea level rise, which will have major repercussions for the Netherlands, according to experts studying rising sea levels. The land only rises, on average, 1 meter above sea level. The U.N. panel of climate experts overstated how much of the Netherlands is below sea level, according to a preliminary report on Saturday, admitting yet another flaw after a … One of the most impressive achievements by the Dutch has been the reduction of their coastline by 700 km. Over the centuries, the Dutch coastline has changed considerably as a result of natural disasters and human intervention. As a result, the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (the BES islands) were to obtain closer ties with the Netherlands. ", KCT. White-Boucke Publishing. Netherlands relies heavily on natural gas to provide energy. Direct elections of the water boards take place every 4 years. Summer and autumn months tend to gather a little more precipitation than the other months, mainly because of the intensity of the rainfall rather than the frequency of rain days (this is especially the case in summer, when lightning is also much more frequent). Most of these are owned by Staatsbosbeheer, the national department for forestry and nature conservation and Natuurmonumenten (literally 'Natures monuments'), a private organisation that buys, protects and manages nature reserves. The lowest point below sea level can be found in ‘Nieuwekerk aan den Ijssel’ and is 6,76 meter below sea level. The oliebol (in its modern form) and Zeeuwse bolus are good examples. Centuries of extensive and poorly controlled peat extraction lowered an already low land surface by several metres. [25] In 2019 agricultural exports were worth €94.5 billion. Since suffrage became universal in 1917, the Dutch political system has been dominated by three families of political parties: the strongest of which were the Christian Democrats, currently represented by the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA); second were the Social Democrats, represented by the Labour Party (PvdA); and third were the Liberals, of which the right-wing People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) is the main representative. Three political parties in the Dutch parliament, (CDA, and two small parties, ChristianUnion and SGP) are based upon the Christian belief. During the Dutch Golden Age, spanning much of the 17th century, the Dutch Republic was prosperous and witnessed a flourishing artistic movement. Freezing days—minimum temperature below 0 °C (32 °F)—occur much more often, usually ranging from mid-November to late March, but not rarely measured as early as mid-October and as late as mid-May. According to official statistics, around one third of the Netherlands lies below sea level, while the rest of the country barely reaches past this geographical average. That’s more than half the land. [20] Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is the busiest airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest in Europe. Later, these terps were connected by dikes. [170], One-third of the world's exports of chilis, tomatoes and cucumbers goes through the country. The goal of the Dutch Government is to have a sustainable, reliable and affordable energy system, by 2050, in which CO2 emissions have been halved and 40 percent of electricity is derived from sustainable sources. As of 2013[update], Rotterdam was the world's eighth largest container port handling 440.5 million metric tonnes of cargo annually. This area is home to over 60% of the country's population of approximately 17 million people. The funding burden for all short-term health care coverage is carried 50% by employers, 45% by the insured person and 5% by the government. [17] Amsterdam is the country's most populous city and nominal capital,[18] while The Hague holds the seat of the States General, Cabinet and Supreme Court. Larger sausages are often eaten alongside stamppot, hutspot or zuurkool (sauerkraut); whereas smaller ones are often eaten as a street food. [156] The energy sector accounted for almost 11% of the GDP in 2014. After declaring their independence, the provinces of Holland, Zeeland, Groningen, Friesland, Utrecht, Overijssel, and Gelderland formed a confederation. Previous measures are no longer sufficient enough in light of more recent knowledge. Relatively high-lying swampland was drained to be used as farmland. [228] If a child does not have a "starting qualification" (HAVO, VWO or MBO 2+ degree) they are still forced to attend classes until they achieve such a qualification.[229]. The Netherlands has been constructing flood barriers for centuries and added a massive network of dams and levees after a 1953 flood killed 1,835 people. Foodstuffs form the largest industrial sector. [156] Netherlands has set a 14% renewable energy target of the total energy mix by the year 2020. [160] Furthermore, The European Union 2020 package (20% reduction in GHG emissions, 20% renewables in the energy mix and 20% improvement in energy efficiency) enacted in 2009 has influenced the domestic energy politics of Netherlands and pressured non-state actors to give consent to more aggressive energy reforms that would reduce reliance on natural resources as a source of income to the economy. 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