Humanity. Muzerelle, Danielle (2010b). [161] As early as 1775, Louis XVI's minister Malesherbes had authorised all prisoners to be given newspapers to read, and to be allowed to write and to correspond with their family and friends. Denis, Vincent (2010). [92] The origins of the name of Comté tower are unclear; one theory is that the name refers to the County of Paris. [88], Structurally, the late-18th century Bastille was not greatly changed from its 14th-century predecessor. Muzerelle (2010b), p. 170; Lüsebrink and Reichardt, p. 207; Coeuret (1890). Bastille Day, in France and its overseas departments and territories, holiday commemorating the fall on July 14, 1789, of the Bastille, in Paris. For the revolution, the Bastille is a symbol for the beginning of change and the start of a new beginning for the classes that have been oppressed by the aristocracy in the centuries before. The Tennis Court Oath. Converting 17th century financial sums into modern equivalents is extremely challenging; for comparison, 232,818 livres was around 1,000 times the annual wages of a typical labourer of the period. hope it helped you:) Comparing 18th century sums of money with modern equivalents is notoriously difficult; for comparison, Latude's pension was around one and a third times that of a labourer's annual wage, while Voltaire's was very considerably more. [100], New kitchens and baths were built just outside the main gate to the Bastille in 1786. [7] Charles instructed Hugh Aubriot, the new provost, to build a much larger fortification on the same site as Marcel's bastille. It was a sign that the Revolution had started, and the people shall seize the power from the wealthy. Bastille Day is still celebrated in France each year. [26], The Bastille was being used to hold prisoners once again by the reign of Louis XI, who began to use it extensively as a state penitentiary. [120] The Bastille was also used to store the Parisian police archives; public order equipment such as chains and flags; and illegal goods, seized by order of the crown using a version of the "lettre de cachet", such as banned books and illicit printing presses. The accuracy of all of Linguet's records on the physical conditions have been questioned by modern historians, for example Simon Schama. 59–60. [156] Pamphlets and magazines publicised Latude's case until he was finally released again in 1784. [6], In 1369, Charles V became concerned about the weakness of the eastern side of the city to English attacks and raids by mercenaries. ", a phrase borrowed from Voltaire. This image of the Bastille during the reign of Louis XVI is now largely believed to have been an exaggeration, with a smaller number of prisoners treated better than the general public had been led to expect. After the Third Estate broke off from the Estates General and formed the National Assembly, the people of Paris grew restless and riots broke out in the city. The Bastille figured prominently in France's domestic conflicts, including the fighting between the rival factions of the Burgundians and the Armagnacs in the 15th century, and the Wars of Religion in the 16th. 124–5, citing Petitfils (2003). [189], As a result, in the days after 14 July, the fortress was searched for evidence of torture: old pieces of armour and bits of a printing press were taken out and presented as evidence of elaborate torture equipment. Traditionally, this fortress was used by French kings to imprison subjects that didn’t agree with them politically, making the Bastille a representation of the oppressive nature of the monarchy. [31], During the 16th century the area around the Bastille developed further. Violence had bought the second major success of the revolution; this apparent justification would bring many more changes over the next few years. Schama, p. 334; Lüsebrink and Reichardt, p. 27. [141], The length of time that a typical prisoner was kept at the Bastille continued to decline, and by Louis XVI's reign the average length of detention was only two months. [87] The Bastille had its own street address, being officially known as No. The prison contained only seven inmates at the time of its storming but was seen by the revolutionaries as a symbol … Dutray-Lecoin, Élise (2010b). Dutray-Lecoin, Élise and Danielle Muzerelle (eds) (2010). "Prints: Images of the Bastille", in Darnton and Roche (eds) (1989). [52] The Parlement of Paris, the Regency government of Anne of Austria and rebellious noble factions fought for several years to take control of the city and wider power. "Les prisons de Paris", in Dutray-Lecoin and Muzerelle (eds) (2010). [177] At around 3:30 pm, more mutinous royal forces arrived to reinforce the crowd, bringing with them trained infantry officers and several cannons. At the other end of the scale, lesser prisoners might get only "a pound of bread and a bottle of bad wine a day; for dinner...broth and two meat dishes; for supper...a slice of roast, some stew, and some salad". [158][Q], Modern historians of this period, such as Hans-Jürgen Lüsebrink, Simon Schama and Monique Cottret, concur that the actual treatment of prisoners in Bastille was much better than the public impression left through these writings. [2] In 1357, Marcel expanded the city walls and protected the Porte Saint-Antoine with two high stone towers and a 78-foot-wide (24 m) ditch. [109], Under Louis XV, around 250 Catholic convulsionnaires, often called Jansenists, were detained in the Bastille for their religious beliefs. Answer. The medieval fortress, armory, and political prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the center of Paris. Schama, pp. [155] Latude was released in 1777, but was rearrested following his publication of a book entitled Memoirs of Vengeance. [103] Prisoners leaving the Bastille could be granted pensions on their release by the Crown, either as a form of compensation or as a way of ensuring future good behaviour – Voltaire was granted 1,200 livres a year, for example, while Latude received an annual pension of 400 livres. Gillispie, p. 247; Funck-Brentano, p. 78. Dutray-Lecoin (2010b), p. 24; Collins, p. 149; McLeod, p. 5. This was still its most (in)famous function by the era of Louis XVI, and the Bastille had seen a lot of prisoners across the years. However, as a number of the crowd had been killed in the fighting – later identified as eighty-three instantly, and fifteen later on from injuries – compared to just one of the garrison, the crowd’s anger demanded a sacrifice, and de Launay was picked. [209] The project was delayed, eventually indefinitely, and all that was constructed was a large plaster version of the bronze statue, which stood on the former site of the Bastille between 1814 and 1846, when the decaying structure was finally removed. [236] These works inspired the writing of a sequence of more popular histories of the Bastille in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including Auguste Coeuret's anniversary history of the Bastille, which typically focused on a handful of themes and stories involving the more glamorous prisoners from the upper classes of French society. [94], The main castle courtyard, accessed through the southern gateway, was 120 feet long by 72 feet wide (37 m by 22 m), and was divided from the smaller northern yard by a three-office wing, built around 1716 and renovated in 1761 in a modern, 18th-century style. Muzerelle (2010b), p. 170; Funck-Bretano (1899). The first was Simon-Nicholas Linguet, who was arrested and detained at the Bastille in 1780, after publishing a critique of Maréchal Duras. Sainte-Aulaire, p. 195; Hazan, p. 14; Treasure, p. 198. The Bastille was built in response to a threat to Paris during the Hundred Years' War between England and France. [169][T], On the morning of 14 July around 900 people formed outside the Bastille, primarily working-class members of the nearby faubourg Saint-Antoine, but also including some mutinous soldiers and local traders. What was the Bastille? [103] The governor was supported by various officers, in particular his deputy, the lieutenant de roi, or lieutenant of the king, who was responsible for general security and the protection of state secrets; the major, responsible for managing the Bastille's financial affairs and the police archives; and the capitaine des portes, who ran the entrance to the Bastille. Crook, pp. After a day's fighting had occurred across the capital, Henry III fled and the Bastille surrendered to Henry, the Duke of Guise and leader of the Catholic League, who appointed Bussy-Leclerc as his new captain. Violence between loyal royal forces, mutinous members of the royal Gardes Françaises and local crowds broke out at Vendôme on 12 July, leading to widespread fighting and the withdrawal of royal forces from the centre of Paris. The dungeon cells, whose damp hastened illness, were no longer in use, and most prisoners were housed in the middle layers of the building, in cells sixteen feet across with rudimentary furniture, often with a window. [118] The Bastille was unusual among Parisian prisons in that it acted on behalf of the king – prisoners could therefore be imprisoned secretly, for longer, and without normal judicial processes being applied, making it a useful facility for the police authorities. The Estates-General was convened in May and members of the Third Estate proclaimed the Tennis Court Oath in June, calling for the king to grant a written constitution. [65] Louis used the Bastille to hold not just suspected rebels or plotters but also those who had simply irritated him in some way, such as differing with him on matters of religion. Revolution. [84] While in the Bastille, de Launay fell in love with a fellow prisoner, the Chevalier de Ménil; she also infamously received an invitation of marriage from the Chevalier de Maisonrouge, the governor's deputy, who had fallen in love with her himself. The Bastille, once a symbol of the absolute power of the King, had become a symbol of the power of the people and their Revolution. [229] Histories of the Bastille since then have focused on the prison's role in policing, censorship and popular culture, in particular how these impacted on the working classes. [138] The Marquis de Sade, for example, arrived with an elaborate wardrobe, paintings, tapestries, a selection of perfume, and a collection of 133 books. The parlement itself issued a strongly worded remonst… Coueret, p. 47; Funck-Brentano, pp. The Bastille was built to defend the eastern approach to the city of Paris from potential English attacks during the Hundred Years' War. [25] The castle remained a key Parisian fortress, but was successfully seized by the Burgundians in 1464, when they convinced royal troops to surrender: once taken, this allowed their faction to make a surprise attack into Paris, almost resulting in the capture of the king. For the fall of the Bastille in the French Revolution, see, East view of the Bastille, drawing c. 1790, Reign of Louis XIV and the Regency (1661–1723), Reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI (1723–1789), 19th–20th century political and cultural legacy, An alternative opinion, held by Fernand Bournon, is that the first bastille was a completely different construction, possibly made just of earth, and that all of the later bastille was built under, The Bastille can be seen in the background of, Hugues Aubriot was subsequently taken from the Bastille to the. [22][C], Despite the improved Parisian defences, Henry V of England captured Paris in 1420 and the Bastille was seized and garrisoned by the English for the next sixteen years. [187] Consequently, the late governor, de Launay, was rapidly vilified as a brutal despot. [43] Henry entered Paris early on the morning of 23 March, through the Porte-Neuve rather than the Saint-Antoine and seized the capital, including the Arsenal complex that neighboured the Bastille. "La Bastille romanesque: entre idéologie et pittoresque", in Dutray-Lecoin and Muzerelle (eds) (2010). [157], By July 1789, revolutionary sentiment was rising in Paris. [129] The cachots, the underground dungeons, had not been used for many years except for holding recaptured escapees. [209] This proved an unpopular option and so instead he planned the construction of a huge, bronze statue of an imperial elephant. [226] The Bastille's archives are now held by the Bibliothèque nationale de France. [209] After the restoration of the French Bourbon monarchy in 1815, the Bastille became an underground symbol for Republicans. [40] Bussy-Leclerc remained in control of the Bastille until December 1592, when, following further political instability, he was forced to surrender the castle to Charles and flee the city. Biography of Marie Antoinette, Queen Executed in the French Revolution, The Estates General and the French Revolution, A History of the Women's March on Versailles, Everything You Need to Know About Bastille Day, The Life and Work of Voltaire, French Enlightenment Writer, Biography of King Louis XVI, Deposed in the French Revolution, The Many Roles of Women in the French Revolution, The French Revolution, Its Outcome, and Legacy, American Reaction to the French Revolution, A Narrative History of the French Revolution - Contents, Biography of Marie-Antoinette, French Queen Consort, A History of the Palace of Versailles, Jewel of the Sun King, A History of the French Revolution: the Reign of Terror, M.A., Medieval Studies, Sheffield University, B.A., Medieval Studies, Sheffield University. [165] In June 1789, the Académie royale d'architecture proposed a similar scheme to Brogniard's, in which the Bastille would be transformed into an open public area, with a tall column at the centre surrounded by fountains, dedicated to Louis XVI as the "restorer of public freedom". [162] In the 1780s Breteuil, the Secretary of State of the Maison du Roi, began a substantial reform of the system of lettres de cachet that sent prisoners to the Bastille: such letters were now required to list the length of time a prisoner would be detained for, and the offence for which they were being held. Reichardt, p. 240; Schama, p. 345; Lüsebrink and Reichardt, p. 86. [6] Work began in 1370 with another pair of towers being built behind the first bastille, followed by two towers to the north, and finally two towers to the south. The Bastille had become a relic of a previous age; indeed, documents from the royal court shortly before the revolution reveal plans had already been developed to knock the Bastille down and replace it with public works, including a monument to Louis XVI and freedom. [180], Within hours of its capture the Bastille began to be used as a powerful symbol to give legitimacy to the revolutionary movement in France. Bastille, medieval fortress on the east side of Paris that became, in the 17th and 18th centuries, a French state prison and a place of detention for important persons charged with various offenses. Latude's inaccuracies include his referring to a new fur coat as "half-rotted rags", for example. [238] The matter was reexamined by Jacques Godechot in the post-war years; Godechot showing convincingly that, in addition to some local artisans and traders, at least half the crowd that gathered that day were, like the inhabitants of the surrounding faubourg, recent immigrants to Paris from the provinces. [122] In the 1750s, 40% of those sent to the Bastille were arrested for their role in manufacturing or dealing in banned material; in the 1760s, the equivalent figure was 35%. [219] Victor Hugo's 1862 novel Les Miserables, set just after the Revolution, gave Napoleon's plaster Bastille elephant a permanent place in literary history. Under Louis XV and XVI, the Bastille was used to detain prisoners from more varied backgrounds, and to support the operations of the Parisian police, especially in enforcing government censorship of the printed media. Lüsebrink and Reichardt, p. 10; Renneville (1719). Construction was underway in 1357, but the main construction occurred from 1370 onwards, creating a strong fortress with eight towers that protected the strategic gateway of the Porte Saint-Antoine on the eastern edge of Paris. [24], Paris was finally recaptured by Charles VII of France in 1436. 14–5, 26. [187] Indeed, the more despotic and evil the Bastille was portrayed by the pro-revolutionary press, the more necessary and justified the actions of the Revolution became. "Malesherbes and the Call For a Free Press", in Darnton and Roche (eds) (1989). [8] The fortress was probably not finished by the time Charles died in 1380, and was completed by his son, Charles VI. Burton, p. 40; Lüsebrink and Reichardt, p. 222. [224], Some relics of the Bastille survive: the Carnavalet Museum holds objects including one of the stone models of the Bastille made by Palloy and the rope ladder used by Latude to escape from the prison roof in the 18th century, while the mechanism and bells of the prison clock are exhibited in Musée Européen d'Art Campanaire at L'Isle-Jourdain. But the Parisia… [180] In the midst of this attempt, the Bastille's drawbridge suddenly came down and the revolutionary crowd stormed in. Religious and political tensions in Paris initially exploded in the Day of the Barricades on 12 May 1588, when hard-line Catholics rose up in revolt against the relatively moderate Henry III. Lüsebrink and Reichardt, pp. The Bastille was a powerful symbol of monarchy because not only the monarchy would punish people there if they did wrong things, as they would also protect themselves from another country. [163], Meanwhile, in 1784, the architect Alexandre Brogniard proposed that the Bastille be demolished and converted into a circular, public space with colonnades. Military strength of France. [92] Bertaudière was named after a medieval mason who died building the structure in the 14th century. [51], In 1648, the Fronde insurrection broke out in Paris, prompted by high taxes, increased food prices and disease. The anniversary of the event is still celebrated as Bastille … [128] The calottes, the rooms just under the roof that formed the upper storey of the Bastille, were considered the least pleasant quarters, being more exposed to the elements and usually either too hot or too cold. [103] These staff were supported by an official surgeon, a chaplain and could, on occasion, call upon the services of a local midwife to assist pregnant prisoners. Berchtold, Jacques (2010). C. Despotic rule of Louis XVI. [12] The fortress had four sets of drawbridges, which allowed the Rue Saint-Antoine to pass eastwards through the Bastille's gates while giving easy access to the city walls on the north and south sides. It played an important role in the internal conflicts of France and for most of its history was used as a state prison by the kings of France. Funck-Brentano, p. 107; Chevallier, p. 152. [164][R] Similarly, Puget, the Bastille's lieutenant de roi, submitted reports in 1788 suggesting that the authorities close the prison, demolish the fortress and sell the real estate off. 120–1. The palace of the Bastille, that old symbol of despotism, is taken by the statue of the benevolent king Louis XVI in this engraving. In 1789, the royal government's financial crisis and the formation of the National Assembly gave rise to a swelling of republican sentiments among city-dwellers. Viollet, p. 172; Schama, p 331; Muzerelle (2010a), p. 14. Writers, many of whom had been released from the Bastille, described it as a place of torture, of living burial, of body draining, mind-sapping hell. "La bibliothèque de la Bastille", in Dutray-Lecoin and Muzerelle (eds) (2010). "La Bastille dans l'historiographie républicaine du XIXe siècle", in Dutray-Lecoin and Muzerelle (eds) (2010). [10] Each of the six newer towers had underground "cachots", or dungeons, at its base, and curved "calotte", literally "shell", rooms in their roofs. The Bastille was a Paris prison that came to symbolize everything that was wrong with France and everything that the French people resented about their country. This fact was not allowed to ruin the symbolic act of seizing such a major symbol of once all-powerful monarchy. "175: La Bastille vue par un artiste", in Dutray-Lecoin and Muzerelle (eds) (2010). [168], The commander of the Bastille at the time was Bernard-René de Launay, a conscientious but minor military officer. When several rebel soldiers arrived with cannon, de Launay decided it was best to seek some sort of compromise for his men and their honor, although he did consider detonating the powder and most of the surrounding area with it. [55] On 11 January 1649, the Fronde decided to take the Bastille, giving the task to Elbeuf, one of their leaders. [10] In particular, building the towers and the walls of the Bastille at the same height allowed the rapid movement of forces around the castle, as well as giving more space to move and position cannons on the wider walkways. Originally built as a medieval fortress, the Bastille eventually came to be used as a state prison and later came to symbolize the harsh rule of the Bourbon monarchy. Most people had been imprisoned on the orders of the king with any trial or defense and were either nobles who had acted against the interests of the court, Catholic dissidents, or writers who were deemed seditious and corrupting. It was later demolished and replaced by the Place de la Bastille. Chevallier, pp. By the time of Louis XVI conditions in the Bastille were better than popularly portrayed. This was a symbol that the nobility, King, and Church elite were in a whole lot of trouble. [71] Detention in the Bastille was typically ordered for an indefinite period and there was considerable secrecy over who had been detained and why: the legend of the "Man in the Iron Mask", a mysterious prisoner who finally died in 1703, symbolises this period of the Bastille. [74], Under Louis, only between 20 and 50 prisoners were usually held at the Bastille at any one time, although as many as 111 were held for a short period in 1703. [90] The ditch around the Bastille, now largely dry, supported a 36-foot (11 m) high stone wall with a wooden walkway for the use of the guards, known as "la ronde", or the round. These cases typically involving members of the aristocracy who had, as historian Richard Andrews notes, "rejected parental authority, disgraced the family reputation, manifested mental derangement, squandered capital or violated professional codes. bolivianouft and 18 more users … [85] The faubourg was characterised by its built-up, densely populated areas, particularly in the north, and its numerous workshops producing soft furnishings. [111] By Louis XVI, the background of those entering the Bastille and the type of offences they were detained over had changed markedly. Lefèvre, Martine (2010). "Appendices B and C", in Linguet (2005). [229] Research in West Germany during the 1980s examined the cultural interpretation of the Bastille against the wider context of the French Revolution; Hanse Lüsebrink and Rolf Reichardt's work, explaining how the Bastille came to be regarded as a symbol of despotism, was among the most prominent. 143–5. To occupy the capital. Schama, p. 333; Andress, p.xiii; Chevallier, p. 151. 55–6; Muzerelle (2010b), p. 170. [186] Although the crowd had initially gone to the Bastille searching for gunpowder, historian Simon Schama observes how the captured prison "gave a shape and an image to all the vices against which the Revolution defined itself". The Bastille: A History of A Symbol of Despotism and Freedom Throughout history, symbols have had an overwhelming presence among citizens. D. Louis XVI's cowardice act. [89] The eight stone towers had gradually acquired individual names: running from the north-east side of the external gate, these were La Chapelle, Trésor, Comté, Bazinière, Bertaudière, Liberté, Puits and Coin. [134][M] Prisoners who were being punished for misbehaviour, however, could have their diet restricted as a punishment. [49][E] The first surviving documentary records of prisoners at the Bastille also date from this period. It was stormed by a crowd on 14 July 1789, in the French Revolution, becoming an important symbol for the French Republican movement. [229] By the 1830s and 1840s, popular histories written by Pierre Joigneaux and by the trio of Auguste Maquet, Auguste Arnould and Jules-Édouard Alboize de Pujol presented the years of the Bastille between 1358 and 1789 as a single, long period of royal tyranny and oppression, epitomised by the fortress; their works featured imaginative 19th-century reconstructions of the medieval torture of prisoners. [35] The southern gateway into the Bastille became the principal entrance to the castle in 1553, the other three gateways being closed. [33] An arms depot was later built above the Porte Saint-Antoine, all making the Bastille part of a major military centre. [27] An early escapee from the Bastille during this period was Antoine de Chabannes, Count of Dammartin and a member of the League of the Public Weal, who was imprisoned by Louis and escaped by boat in 1465. [144], Linguet's work was followed by another prominent autobiography, Henri Latude's Le despotisme dévoilé. On 26 August, during the period known as the First Fronde, Anne ordered the arrest of some of the leaders of the Parlement of Paris; violence flared as a result, and the 27 August became known as another Day of the Barricades. "Review: The Bastille: a History of a Symbol of Despotism and Freedom". Only seven prisoners remained in the fortress, – the Marquis de Sade had been transferred to the asylum of Charenton, after addressing the public from his walks on top of the towers and, once this was forbidden, shouting from the window of his cell. [45] After several days of tension, an agreement was finally reached for this rump element to leave safely, and on 27 March du Bourg surrendered the Bastille and left the city himself. "Le système pénitentiaire parisien sous l'Ancien Régime", in Dutray-Lecoin and Muzerelle (eds) (2010). [171] The shops in the entranceway to the Bastille had been closed and the gates locked. [194] Of these, only one – de Whyte de Malleville, an elderly and white-bearded man – closely resembled the public image of a Bastille prisoner; despite being mentally ill, he was paraded through the streets, where he waved happily to the crowds. [144] The first major criticism emerged from Constantin de Renneville, who had been imprisoned in the Bastille for 11 years and published his accounts of the experience in 1715 in his book L'Inquisition françois. Over the next century, the site and historical legacy of the Bastille featured prominently in French revolutions, political protests and popular fiction, and it remained an important symbol for the French Republican movement. [190] Latude returned to the Bastille, where he was given the rope ladder and equipment with which he had escaped from the prison many years before. [124] In particular, many of those writers detained under Louis XVI were imprisoned for their role in producing illegal pornography, rather than political critiques of the regime. This was certainly the tone taken by writers before and during the revolution, who … [78] By 1711, a 60-strong French military garrison had been established at the Bastille. [20] In 1418, for example, the future Charles VII took refuge in the Bastille during the Burgundian-led "Massacre of the Armagnacs" in Paris, before successfully fleeing the city through the Porte Saint-Antoine. Lüsebrink, Hans-Jürgen and Rolf Reichardt (1997). [184] The valuable powder and guns were seized and a search begun for the other prisoners in the Bastille. 133–5 and Coueret, p. 20. [173] Just after midday, another negotiator was let in to discuss the situation, but no compromise could be reached: the revolutionary representatives now wanted both the guns and the gunpowder in the Bastille to be handed over, but de Launay refused to do so unless he received authorisation from his leadership in Versailles. [74], Many prisoners still continued to come from the upper classes, particularly in those cases termed "désordres des familles", or disorders of the family. [242] The Bibliothèque nationale de France held a major exhibition on the legacy of the Bastille between 2010 and 2011, resulting in a substantial edited volume summarising the current academic perspectives on the fortress. "A Self-Defining Bourgeoisie in the Early French Revolution: The Milice bourgeoise, the Bastille Days of 1789, and Their Aftermath,". Did the events leading up to the storming of the Bastille persuade the French citizens to believe that it was a symbol of … Schama, p. 340; Lüsebrink and Reichardt, p. 58. “Bastille, a prison that was a symbol of the King's absolute and arbitrary power.” Schama, pp. [74] Prisoners would still be expected to sign a document on their release, promising not to talk about the Bastille or their time within it, but by the 1780s this agreement was frequently broken. Louis XVI was indeed planning to erase the gothic—and thus un-enlightened—and expensive prison, but the Revolution moved faster than him. On July 14th, 1789, days into the French Revolution, a massive crowd of Parisians had just received arms and cannon from the Invalides. [154] Latude became famous for managing to escape from the Bastille by means of climbing up the chimney of his cell and then descending the walls with a home-made rope ladder, before being recaptured afterwards in Amsterdam by French agents. 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