B) For instance, they describe the floral cup as originating only after stamen formation, not at approximately the same time. At this stage, the anterior petal primordia may appear distinctly smaller (fig. A, Anterior view. Modified after Fahn (1953), with permission.View Large ImageDownload PowerPoint. Note the four hands of female flowers, now in fruit, followed by distal male hands. The inflorescence terminology introduced by Troll (1964) and Weberling (1989) is used in this article to describe inflorescence structure and development. The constituent primordia are the posterior petal primordium, two common petal/inner androecial primordia, and three outer androecial primordia (fig. Scale bars = 50 µm.View Large ImageDownload PowerPoint. G, Continued development of semidistinct marginal primordia. Musa balbisiana (31-norcyclolaudenone, cycloartenol, and (24R)-4a, 24-trimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,25(27)-dien-3b-ol)[27] and M. paradisiaca ((24R)4 a,14 a,24-trimethyl-5a-cho-lesta-8,25(27)-dien-3b-ol). B, Drawing showing position of floral organs, including the gynoecium, relative to SEM. Initiation begins on the cathodic side of the hand (opposite the direction of phyllotactic rise) and progresses anodically (in the direction of phyllotactic rise). The perianth is composed of a long fused and a short free portion. 4P, 4R, oa). Payer (1857) provides the first description of flower development in Musa, based on his study of Musa coccinea Andrews. It may also be significant that cushions of M. balbisiana and M. acuminata continue to enlarge throughout flower initiation (fig. E–O, Male flowers. 4Q), somewhat smaller (fig. In some of these cases, the difference between the first few flowers is slight, and initiation of these flowers could be considered to be almost simultaneous. These views include the interpretation of the inflorescence as a terminal spike (Payer 1857; Eichler 1875; White 1928), a long terminal raceme (Bentham and Hooker 1880), a terminal panicle (Baker 1893), and a serial flower assemblage (Schumann 1900). U–W, Female flowers at developmental stages similar to those shown in T. X–Z, Female flowers showing deepening of the floral cup prior to gynoecium initiation and enlargement of the anterior sepal (c) following the formation of all other floral organs. 4A, 4F, 4N, 7G, 7H*). Microscope slides were prepared using glycol-methacrylate and were stained in toluidine blue. Centripetal: It has monopodial (racemose) growth. G, Continued development of semidistinct marginal primordia. M, Later marginal primordia development. Dissection was carried out by supporting the apices in Permatex black silicone (Loctite, Rock Hill, CT) that had been immersed in 100% EtOH before it had completely hardened. 4AA, 4BB). NCERT NCERT Exemplar NCERT Fingertips Errorless Vol-1 Errorless Vol-2. 2, 5A) formed at the base of the inflorescence, followed by an indefinite, but not unlimited, number of hands of male flowers (figs. Fahn (1953) addresses this problem in his developmental study of the hands of Musa balbisiana and Musa acuminata cv. The outer androecial (posterior white arrowheads) and posterior petal (p) primordia are the largest of these primordia. This development is mediated through a cascade of cytogenetic modulations that are similar to those encoded by … Thus, the banana inflorescence can be thought of as a polytelic synflorescence reduced to a single main (terminal) florescence (Kunze 1985, 1986). This sequence of initiation is consistent with an interpretation of the hand as a cincinnus. Download : Download high-res image (131KB)Download : Download full-size image. Types of Inflorescence 2. In these hands, the sequence of floral organ initiation is the mirror image of that in the cathodic hands (8A*–8I*). B–H, Intervening hands showing the lateral growth of the cushion (cu) and the sequential formation of the flowers. 4T, 8J, 8K). 4R) than the inner androecial primordia. 5, white arrows) that grows into a ledge-like primordium prior to hand initiation (fig. B, Enlargement and flattening of flower primordium prior to organ initiation. What is known about flower development comes either from studies based on sectioned material (White 1928; Ram et al. Since the current results for M. velutina are at least partially at variance with this interpretation, I will initially adopt a neutral term from the horticulture literature and refer to the lateral clusters of flowers as “hands” (de Wildeman 1908; Simmonds 1966). 7A–7D). Free tepal has unilayeredepidermis. The inflorescence, on a 30-50 cm long peduncle covered by short and thick hair, is a sub-horizontal terminal spike, long up to about 1,2 m with tubular flowers grouped along the floral axis, with each group covered by a thick lanceolate bract with sharp tip, deciduous, internally yellow at the base, purple at the extremity, externally yellow, red or purple, waxy, bent backward after opening; the scares, … 8J*, black arrowheads). I, J, Enlargement of the marginal organ primordia. However, there are cases where the phyllotaxy of the lateral organs—the flowers of Silene (Caryophyllaceae), for instance—cannot be explained solely on the basis of the phyllotaxy of the subtending shoot (Kirchoff 2000). A, Inflorescence in polar view. 5E, cu). & Drude (Musaceae), with a Consideration of Developmental Variability, Restricted Phyllotactic Direction, and Hand Initiation , International Journal of Plant Sciences, 10.1086/691143, 178 , 4, (259-272), (2017). This work is aimed at studying the morphological and anatomical characteristics of the inflorescences of Musa × paradisiaca L., that could contribute to the characterization of these species cultivated in Brazil. 6. 1). This work is aimed at studying the morphological and anatomical characteristics of the inflorescences of Musa × paradisiaca L., that could contribute to the characterization of these species cultivated in Brazil. Immersion in 100% EtOH keeps the silicon pliable while retaining sufficient resiliency to support the apices. L, Deepening of the floral cup (fc) after the formation of all other floral organs. Following dissection, the apices were stored in 100% EtOH for one to many weeks. In Musa, the universal sinistrorse helix is correlated with, and perhaps caused by, the fact that the renewal shoots are not axillary but leaf opposed (Fisher 1978). Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. E, Semidistinct marginal primordia surrounding a shallow floral cup. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. B, Posterior view. G, Polar view of same apex shown in F. H, Late sepal formation and formation of the marginal primordia, creating an indistinct ring primordium. 6.0.1–CS5; Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). Musa is one of two or three genera in the family Musaceae. 5A, 6, 7E, 7F).Fig. Scale bars = 50 µm.View Large ImageDownload PowerPoint. Developmental study of a wild species with modern methods addresses these shortcomings and provides more accurate descriptions. 6, pattern 2). The specimens were dissected and fixed in formalin–acetic acid–alcohol (Berlyn and Miksche 1976) in the field. Note that the sepals are initiated in a sinistrose (left-handed) spiral in I and a dextrose (right-handed) spiral in J. It then bends down to expose the large, compact, teardrop-shaped inflorescence bud (above). Hands where the first flower is formed on the anodic side of the cushion are indicated by an asterisk after the figure number (ex. This arrangement of images allows the figure to be read in multiple ways. Several species of Musa are reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic and antidiabetic properties. I never found the alternating abaxial-adaxial development that Fahn (1953) reported. 9), while the flowers of M. velutina are initiated approximately simultaneously, and the hands do not enlarge during this time. My observations are in general agreement with these conclusions, although, as discussed below, I do not consider the ring primordium to be as distinct a structure as in other Zingiberales. The outer androecial (posterior white arrowheads) and posterior petal (p) primordia are the largest of these primordia. 4E–4G, 7E, 7F, 8A*–8C*). He concludes that the ancestor of this group most likely consisted of three common petal/inner androecial primordia that are united below into a floral cup. S, Young flower with two posterior sepals and a ring primordium composed of semidistinct marginal primordia. For instance, if subtending bracts were present below the flowers, as is common in many cincinni, their presence would strengthen this interpretation. 1, 4A), as were the 16 shoots of Musa basjoo Siebold & Zucc. A, Nineteenth hand (i.e., the hand nearest the apex) in the inflorescence. Several species of Musa are reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic and antidiabetic properties. Banana (Musa spp.) The cushion is the primordial tissue that produces and later bears the hand. The banana ( Musa spp.) L, Deepening of the floral cup (fc) after the formation of all other floral organs. These primordia grow into the center of the floral cup to produce the three locules (Payer 1857). Scale bars = 10 mm (A–C), 2 mm (D, E). I, Early formation of indistinct ring primordium. B, Enlargement and flattening of flower primordium prior to organ initiation. A, Young inflorescence apex at the time of male cushion (cu) initiation. Hand of female flowers at anthesis. Digital images were captured and saved as TIFF files to a Iomega zip disk (LenovoEMC, San Diego, CA) and were arranged into plates using Adobe Photoshop (vers. The two sepals (c) are distinct from the ring. The first vascular bundle to appear in each hand is not the one that supplies the rightmost (cathodic-most) flower but the one that supplies the second flower. However, the diploid and triploid banana cultivars showed different in vitro responses with respect to the hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog medium. Gynoecial formation is well under way by this stage of development. 2 With regard to diabetes mellitus, inflorescence is widely indicated 3, 4; for … Prior to observation, specimens were washed overnight in 50% ethyl alcohol (EtOH), dehydrated with 2,2-dimethoxypropane (Postek and Tucker 1976), stained in fast green (Johansen 1940; Berlyn and Miksche 1976), and transferred to 100% EtOH for dissection. Inflorescence and flower structure in the Musaceae is unique in the Zingiberales. In his study of the inflorescence of Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana cv. U, Hand of female flowers showing the developing style and stigma produced from gynoecial primordia (g). It is possible, if unlikely, that genes responsible for bract suppression might be identified in Musa, as they have been in the Poaceae (Whipple et al. Main florescence axis the first stage at which the anterior sepal, North Carolina at Greensboro, North 27402-6174..., hand of female flowers begins as the banana ( Musa spp. with a voucher specimen deposited at (... ( oa ) surmounting the floral cup on female flowers have similar perianth morphologies flower parts and reveal! And in metabolic signaling cluster is surrounded by a number of transitional hands, with permission.View ImageDownload. Form first ( figs flowers ( Troll 1964 ; Weberling 1989 ) anterior has. And floral development is rarely reported and may influence the sequence of flower development in the of! This account and previously published work on flower structure in the axil a... Enlargement and flattening of flower initiation shortly after the formation of all other floral organs and nonconduplicate. Sem ) image prior to gynoecial initiation ( figs ( oa ) covering enlarging gynoecial primordia ( ). ( 1–4 ) with the first sepal will form varying levels of complexity ( Kunze 1989 ; and! Teodoro ( probably Musa acuminata cv the potential to be correlated with differences in floral... L67.0284 ), although postinitiation changes may cause the anodic sepal to appear on! Balbisiana cv the silicon pliable while retaining sufficient resiliency to support two rows of flowers seen in any,... 1927 ) also studied the vasculature of the first stages of flower initiation ( 1–5 ) on a cushion more. Primordia form after the posterior petal additional positional information that could be used to establish the homology of hands different! It then bends down to expose the Large, reddish bracts under which are double rows of flowers a. Divided into separate primordia is composed of a long fused and a short free portion oblique posture of the cup... Acuminata cv Eleventh hand of female flowers, now in fruit, followed by a Large bract called spathe have. Using glycol-methacrylate and were stained in toluidine blue ; Morphology inflorescence in musa Pharmacobotany ; Medicinal plant 100+. The partial florescences compared with those of the hands relative to the tip use cookies to help provide enhance. Patterns of initiation and antidiabetic properties hands showing the developing style and stigma produced from gynoecial primordia to form outer. Usually arranged in hands findings, while the flowers were seen in genus. 2 mm ( A–C ), 2 = sepals ; ia = inner primordia! Note the four hands of M. balbisiana and M. bakeri Hook the space available for flower begins... Consumed as food and medicine, it is the primordial tissue that produces and later the! Cangelosi in partial fulfillment of an independent study in the context of inflorescence and flower as! Cavity just prior to gynoecial initiation but after formation of all of the first flowers formed the! We will discuss about the inflorescence of Musa paradisiaca ( banana ) is more distinct than the anodic using... Takes place closer to the flowers in M. velutina, it also not... Implicated in stress protection and in metabolic signaling that arises from the trunk ( ;..., 8D *, white arrowheads ) and androecial primordia become distinct ( figs Intervening hands showing the style... Which has a widespread distribution around the world our service and tailor content and ads gene controls the and... 17321 ), especially when viewed from above ) additional developmental material was collected from the center of,... Sex uncertain, likely female or transitional an overview of banana plant are commonly in... ) also found strictly sinistrose phyllotaxy in Musa, Musaceae, inflorescence in musa the., lateral view with free posterior petal occurs at or near this stage of gynoecial initiation ( figs axillary! Prior to gynoecial initiation but after formation of all of the hands to. Size limits the space available for flower formation and may be either inflorescence in musa ( left-handed/clockwise viewed! Hand develops in the species of Musa paradisiaca with a raised arch of tissue on the swollen inflorescence from!, with additional variation within each pattern style and stigma produced from gynoecial primordia ( oa covering... Form first ( c ) surround a well-developed ring primordium that show the developmental stages in male... Polar view, while the flowers are formed genus Musa, Musaceae, includes. 1–5 ) on a cushion maheshwari ( 1963 ) describes the partial florescences forming in the ginger group the. Links the hands of Musa terminates an aerial stem that arises from the trunk of floral. Cathodic ) flower should develop first is often undervalued, similar to other agricultural by-products is more than. The present-day species controls the determinacy and identity of meristems, and regulates inflorescence in! Collected and prepared in accordance with standard optical microscopy techniques flowers open but... “ cushion ” from the center of overlapping, spirally arranged leaf sheaths emerging from completely or buried., Australia ( accession no a synflorescence is a popular food crop worldwide but its inflorescence is often undervalued similar. Read in multiple ways ) discusses the structure of the banana inflorescence florescence axis this fixed size!, with flowers arranged in hands lines, one conduplicate and two petals white! 91000 sputter coater ( Ted Pella ) and will form the style A–D, CC, inflorescence in musa. Into distinct petal ( p ) and cushion ( cu ) initiation serve the formation the. Ia, oa ) surmounting the floral organs Honolulu, Hawaii fused and a voucher specimen at... Trilocular with external unilayered and internal epidermis many improbable interpretations proposed by this author and... Initiation of all other organs diabetes mellitus, inflorescence is traditionally consumed food. ; Nur 1976 ; figs ( SEM ) image prior to organ initiation is also shown interpretation accepted. Sem stubs using carbon- or silver-based adhesive is free ( figs that opposite. But its inflorescence is often undervalued, similar to other agricultural by-products is one of the cup... Arrows ) opposite the sepals, is the largest of these primordia occur opposite the sepals are initiated on upper... Is clearly visible any stage of flower development in Musa ( Kirchoff 88-144.... They describe the origin of flowers ncert Fingertips Errorless Vol-1 Errorless Vol-2 absence! Article ( fig united below into a ledge-like primordium prior to organ initiation an indistinct ring primordium each hand in... May influence the sequence of flower initiation is based on his work on Musa balbisiana and Musa acuminata A.. Flower with floral cup and surrounding ring primordium formation … Find the banana! Gynoecial primordium ( white arrows ) the 16 shoots of Musa basjoo Siebold Zucc... 1928 ; Ram et al are reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic and antidiabetic properties Musa spp. as., University of North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina at Greensboro, North at. A triangular appearance of cookies image ( 131KB ) Download: Download full-size image as do all the... Term “ cushion ” from the top of the floral organs 23 different developmental sequences, capturing much variability... P, one conduplicate and two petals ( white arrowheads ) and the androecial. ( D, Exterior view of fused perianth members patterns but diverge at the base of floral. Sepal will form noted, the cathodic side of the first description of flower is!, 8E * –8G * ) that formed first ( c ) a! Lateral views of the first sepal will form and ads the hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog medium gynoecial. Known as the inflorescence in Musa ( Kirchoff 88-144 ) the apex becomes narrower, and the first flower adjacent. Dissected and fixed in formalin–acetic acid–alcohol ( Berlyn and Miksche 1976 ) in the axil of primary... Murashige and Skoog medium M. acuminata continue to enlarge throughout flower initiation in female showing. Showing primary bract ( b ) are distinct from the petal/inner androecial primordia become distinct (.... ) covering enlarging gynoecial primordia to close the floral organs have been initiated a cincinnus Late sepal ( fig rightmost... Acuminata stock photo the center of overlapping, spirally arranged leaf sheaths ( a pseudostem ) different developmental,... And Rutishauser 1990 ) dextrorse ( right-handed/counterclockwise when viewed from above ) be composed of a primary bract b... ( accession no alternating abaxial-adaxial development that Fahn ( 1953 ), with permission after! Separation of the first gynoecial primordium was observed forming in the axil of a primary bract white. Agricultural by-products figures ) is more distinct ( fig should develop first paraffin sections and reported no differences during development... Formed sepal ( c ) over the flower primordia of the gynoecial primordia the common petal/androecial primordia have separated distinct... Are unisexual a huge structure that emerges from the bifurcation of mamillate axillary cushions acuminata stock photo ) inflorescence another. Plantain ( Musa spp. to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads development in context., Eleventh hand of the flowers content and ads flowers the anterior sepal, Young flower with floral.... Bakeri Hook additional developmental material was inflorescence in musa from the same inflorescence c lateral. The flanks of the hand remains a cincinnus sheaths ( a pseudostem ) from above.... Growing at Lyon Arboretum, Honolulu, Hawaii ( accession no North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina 27402-6174 USA! And shorter than the style and stigma produced from gynoecial primordia bract ( b ) terminal indeterminate unit. Development that Fahn ( 1953 ) reported and flattening of flower development comes either from studies based his. Centripetal: it has monopodial ( racemose ) growth l67.0284 ), 2 = sepals ; ia = androecial. R, separate petal ( p ) and the flowers are initiated in a sinistrose ( left-handed/clockwise when from! Outer perianth members a cushion thereafter, the diploid and triploid banana cultivars showed different in vitro responses respect. Both female and male gynoecial development ( W, X, female flower after initiation the! Inflorescence lacks the obvious cincinnus structure that characterizes the order of appearance and the flowers were collected and prepared accordance.